The Articles of Confederation
To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our Names, send greeting
Whereas the Delegates of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, did, on the 15th day of November, in the Year of Our Lord One thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy seven, and in the Second Year of the Independence of America, agree to certain articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of New-hampshire, Massachusetts-bay, Rhode-island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgia in the words following, viz.
"Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the states of New-hampshire, Massachusetts-bay, Rhode-island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina and Georgia".
Article I. The Stile of this confederacy shall
be "The United States of America".
Article II. Each state retains its sovereignty,
freedom, and independence, and every Power, Jurisdiction and right,
which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United
States, in Congress assembled.
Article III. The said states hereby severally enter
into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common
defence, the security of their Liberties, and their mutual and general
welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force
offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account
of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatever.
Article IV. The better to secure and perpetuate
mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different
states in this union, the free inhabitants of each of these states,
paupers, vagabonds and fugitives from justice excepted, shall be
entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the
several states; and the people of each state shall have free ingress
and regress to and from any other state, and shall enjoy therein
all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties
impositions and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively,
provided that such restriction shall not extend so far as to prevent
the removal of property imported into any state, to any other state,
of which the Owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition,
duties or restriction shall be laid by any state, on the property
of the united states, or either of them. If any Person guilty of,
or charged with treason, felony, - or other high misdemeanor in
any state, shall flee from Justice, and be found in any of the united
states, he shall, upon demand of the Governor or executive power,
of the state from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to
the state having jurisdiction of his offence. Full faith and credit
shall be given in each of these states to the records, acts and
judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other
Article V. For the more convenient management of
the general interests of the united states, delegates shall be annually
appointed in such manner as the legislature of each state shall
direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in
every year, with a power reserved to each state, to recal its delegates,
or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others
in their stead, for the remainder of the Year. No state shall be
represented in Congress by less than two, nor by more than seven
Members; and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for
more than three years in any term of six years; nor shall any person,
being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the united
states, for which he, or another for his benefit receives any salary,
fees or emolument of any kind. Each state shall maintain its own
delegates in a meeting of the states, and while they act as members
of the committee of the states. In determining questions in the
united states in Congress assembled, each state shall have one vote.
Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any Court, or place out of Congress, and the members of congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests and imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.
Article VI. No state, without the Consent of the
united states in congress assembled, shall send any embassy to,
or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conference agreement,
alliance or treaty with any King prince or state; nor shall any
person holding any office of profit or trust under the united states,
or any of them, accept of any present, emolument, office or title
of any kind whatever from any king, prince or foreign state; nor
shall the united states in congress assembled, or any of them, grant
any title of nobility.
No two or more states shall enter into any treaty, confederation or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the united states in congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.
No state shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the united states in congress assembled, with any king, prince or state, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by congress, to the courts of France and Spain.
No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any state, except such number only, as shall be deemed necessary by the united states in congress assembled, for the defence of such state, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any state, in time of peace, except such number only, as in the judgment of the united states, in congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defence of such state; but every state shall always keep up a well regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutered, and shall provide and constantly have ready for use, in public stores, a due number of field pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition and camp equipage.
No state shall engage in any war without the consent of the united states in congress assembled, unless such state be actually invaded by enemies, or shall have received certain advice of a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians to invade such state, and the danger is so imminent as not to admit of a delay till the united states in congress assembled can be consulted: nor shall any state grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the united states in congress assembled, and then only against the kingdom or state and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by the united states in congress assembled, unless such state be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until the united states in congress assembled, shall determine otherwise.
Article VII. When land-forces are raised by any
state for the common defence, all officers of or under the rank
of colonel, shall be appointed by the legislature of each state
respectively, by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner
as such state shall direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up
by the State which first made the appointment.
Article VIII. All charges of war, and all other
expences that shall be incurred for the common defence or general
welfare, and allowed by the united states in congress assembled,
shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied
by the several states in proportion to the value of all land within
each state, granted to or surveyed for any Person, as such land
and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated according
to such mode as the united states in congress assembled, shall from
time to time direct and appoint. The taxes for paying that proportion
shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures
of the several states within the time agreed upon by the united
states in congress assembled.
Article IX. The united states in congress assembled,
shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of determining
on peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article--of
sending and receiving ambassadors--entering into treaties and alliances,
provided that no treaty of commerce shall be made whereby the legislative
power of the respective states shall be restrained from imposing
such imposts and duties on foreigners as their own people are subjected
to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species
of goods or commodities, whatsoever--of establishing rules for deciding
in all cases, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and
in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service
of the united states shall be divided or appropriated--of granting
letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace--appointing courts
for the trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas
and establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals
in all cases of captures, provided that no member of congress shall
be appointed a judge of any of the said courts.
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The united states in congress assembled shall also be the last resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting or that hereafter may arise between two or more states concerning boundary, jurisdiction or any other cause whatever; which authority shall always be exercised in the manner following. Whenever the legislative or executive authority or lawful agent of any state in controversy with another shall present a petition to congress stating the matter in question and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given by order of congress to the legislative or executive authority of the other state in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint by joint consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question: but if they cannot agree, congress shall name three persons out of each of the united states, and from the list of such persons each party shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that number not less than seven, nor more than nine names as congress shall direct, shall in the presence of congress be drawn out by lot, and the persons whose names shall be so drawn or any five of them, shall be commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the controversy, so always as a major part of the judges who shall hear the cause shall agree in the determination: and if either party shall neglect to attend at the day appointed, without showing reasons, which congress shall judge sufficient, or being present shall refuse to strike, the congress shall proceed to nominate three persons out of each state, and the secretary of congress shall strike in behalf of such party absent or refusing; and the judgment and sentence of the court to be appointed, in the manner before prescribed, shall be final and conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or to appear or defend their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce sentence, or judgment, which shall in like manner be final and decisive, the judgment or sentence and other proceedings being in either case transmitted to congress, and lodged among the acts of congress for the security of the parties concerned: provided that every commissioner, before he sits in judgment, shall take an oath to be administered by one of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the state, where the cause shall be tried, --well and truly to hear and determine the matter in question, according to the best of his judgment, without favour, affection or hope of reward: --provided also, that no state shall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the united states.
All controversies concerning the private right of soil claimed under different grants of two or more states, whose jurisdictions as they may respect such lands, and the states which passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of them being at the same time claimed to have originated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall on the petition of either party to the congress of the united states, be finally determined as near as may be in the same manner as is before prescribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different states. The united states in congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states--fixing the standard of weights and measures throughout the united states--regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the states, provided that the legislative right of any state within its own limits be not infringed or violated--establishing or regulating post offices from one state to another, throughout all the united states, and exacting such postage on the papers passing thro' the same as may be requisite to defray the expences of the said office--appointing all officers of the land forces, in the service of the united states, excepting regimental officers--appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the united states--making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.
The united states in congress assembled shall have authority to appoint a committee, to sit in the recess of congress, to be denominated "A Committee of the States," and to consist of one delegate from each state; and to appoint such other committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of the united states under their direction--to appoint one of their number to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years; to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the united states, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expences to borrow money, or emit bills on the credit of the united states, transmitting every half year to the respective states an account of the sums of money so borrowed or emitted,--to build and equip a navy--to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each state for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such state; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the legislature of each state shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men and cloth, arm and equip them in a soldier like manner, at the expence of the united states; and the officers and men so cloathed, armed and quipped shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the united states in congress assembled: But if the united states in congress assembled shall, on consideration of circumstances judge proper that any state should not raise men, or should raise a smaller number than its quota, and that any other state should raise a greater number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, cloathed, armed and equipped in the same manner as the quota of such state, unless the legislature of such state shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely spared out of the same, in which case they shall raise officer, cloath, arm and equip as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely spared. And the officers and men so cloathed, armed and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the united states in congress assembled.
The united states in congress assembled shall never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque and reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expences necessary for the defence and welfare of the united states, or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the united states, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war, to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine states assent to the same: nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day be determined, unless by the votes of a majority of the united states in congress assembled. The congress of the united states shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the united states, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six Months, and shall publish the Journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances or military operations, as in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each state on any question shall be entered on the Journal, when it is desired by any delegate; and the delegates of a state, or any of them, at his or their request shall be furnished with a transcript of the said Journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legislatures of the several states.
Article X. The committee of the states, or any
nine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of congress,
such of the powers of congress as the united states in congress
assembled, by the consent of nine states, shall from time to time
think expedient to vest them with; provided that no power be delegated
to the said committee, for the exercise of which, by the articles
of confederation, the voice of nine states in the congress of the
united states assembled is requisite.
Article XI. Canada acceding to this confederation,
and joining in the measures of the united states, shall be admitted
into, and entitled to all the advantages of this union: but no other
colony shall be admitted into the same, unless such admission be
agreed to by nine states.
Article XII. All bills of credit emitted, monies
borrowed and debts contracted by, or under the authority of congress,
before the assembling of the united states, in pursuance of the
present confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge
against the united states, for payment and satisfaction whereof
the said united states, and the public faith are hereby solemnly
Article XIII. Every state shall abide by the determinations
of the united states in congress assembled, on all questions which
by this confederation are submitted to them. And the Articles of
this confederation shall be inviolably observed by every state,
and the union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any
time hereafter be made in any of them; unless such alteration be
agreed to in a congress of the united states, and be afterwards
confirmed by the legislatures of every state.
And Whereas it hath pleased the Great Governor of the World to incline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the said articles of confederation and perpetual union. Know Ye that we the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said articles of confederation and perpetual union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained: And we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the united states in congress assembled, on all questions, which by the said confederation are submitted to them. And that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the states we respectively represent, and that the union shall be perpetual. In Witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Done at Philadelphia in the state of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the Year of our Lord one Thousand seven Hundred and Seventy-eight, and in the third year of the independence of America.
On the part of & behalf of the State of New Hampshire:
Josiah Bartlett, John Wentworth. Junr -August 8th, 1778.
On the part and behalf of the State of Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations:
William Ellery, Henry Marchant, John Collins.
On the part and behalf of the State of New York:
Jas Duane, Fra: Lewis, Wm Duer, Gouvr Morris.
On the part and behalf of the State of Pennsylvania:
Robert Morris, Daniel Roberdeau, Jon. Bayard Smith, William Clingar, Joseph Reed -22d July, 1778.
On the part and behalf of the State of Maryland:
John Hanson, Daniel Carroll -March 1, 1781
On the part and behalf of the State of North Carolina:
John Penn, Corns Harnett, Jno Williams. -July 21st, 1778
On the part and behalf of the State of Georgia:
Jno Walton, Edwd Telfair, Edwd Langworthy. -24th July, 1778
On the part of & behalf of the State of Massachusetts Bay:
John Hancock, Samuel Adams, Elbridge Gerry, Francis Dana, James Lovell, Samuel Holten.
On the part and behalf of the State of Connecticut:
Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, Oliver Wolcott, Titus Hosmer, Andrew Adams
On the Part and in Behalf of the State of New Jersey:
Jno Witherspoon, Nathl Scudder. -November 26th, 1778
On the part and behalf of the State of Delaware:
Thos McKean, Febr 22d, 1779, John Dickinson, May 5th, 1779, Nicholas Van Dyke.
On the part and behalf of the State of Virginia:
Richard Henry Lee, John Banister, Thomas Adams, Jno Harvie, Francis Lightfoot Lee.
On the part and behalf of the State of South Carolina:
Henry Laurens, William Henry Drayton, Jno Mathews, Richd Hutson, Thos Heyward, junr.
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